Mental health disorders can have a significant impact on an individual’s overall well-being. These conditions can affect how you feel, think, and behave, making it challenging to cope with daily life. It’s essential to understand the different types of mental illnesses and their symptoms so that you can seek appropriate help and support.
In this article, we will explore various mental illness types, including common mental illnesses, major mental illnesses, psychological disorders, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, eating disorders, substance use disorders, psychotic disorders, developmental disorders, trauma, and stressor-related disorders, and mental illness in children and adolescents.
- Understanding different mental illness types is essential for promoting better mental health.
- Mental health disorders can affect how you feel, think, and behave, making it challenging to cope with daily life.
- Recognizing symptoms and seeking appropriate help and support is crucial for managing mental health disorders.
- There are various types of mental illnesses, including common mental illnesses, major mental illnesses, psychological disorders, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, eating disorders, substance use disorders, psychotic disorders, developmental disorders, trauma and stressor-related disorders, and mental illness in children and adolescents.
- Seeking professional assistance is necessary for overall well-being.
Common Mental Illnesses: An Overview
When it comes to mental health, there are various types of mental illnesses that people experience. It’s essential to recognize these conditions to promote better mental health and seek appropriate treatment when necessary. Here, we will provide you with an overview of the types of mental illnesses that are most commonly experienced.
Depression is a mental illness that causes a persistent feeling of sadness and loss of interest. It affects how you think and feel, making it challenging to perform daily activities. Depression can have a significant impact on your overall well-being and quality of life. Some common symptoms of depression include:
- Loss of interest in activities you once enjoyed
- Difficulty concentrating
- Changes in appetite and weight
- Feeling tired and lacking energy
If you experience these symptoms for an extended period, it’s crucial to seek help from a mental health professional.
Anxiety disorders are a common type of mental illness that causes excessive worry and fear. These disorders can significantly impact a person’s daily life and make it challenging to perform daily tasks. Types of anxiety disorders include:
- Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
- Panic Disorder
- Social Anxiety Disorder
Common symptoms of anxiety disorders include:
- Excessive worry and fear
- Feeling restless or irritable
- Difficulty concentrating
- Physical symptoms, such as sweating, trembling, and nausea
If you experience these symptoms, it’s essential to speak to a medical professional to get the help you need.
Bipolar disorder is a mental illness that causes extreme mood swings, including periods of depression and mania. It can cause significant disruptions to a person’s life and make it challenging to perform daily activities. Common symptoms of bipolar disorder include:
- Periods of depression and low mood
- Periods of mania or hypomania
- Difficulty sleeping
- Feeling restless or agitated
If you experience these symptoms, it’s crucial to seek professional help to manage the condition and improve your overall quality of life.
Remember that mental illnesses are common and treatable. Seeking professional help is not a sign of weakness but a sign of strength and courage. You deserve to live a healthy and fulfilling life.
Major Mental Illnesses and Their Characteristics
Major mental illnesses are psychiatric disorders that can have a severe impact on an individual’s daily functioning. These illnesses often involve significant changes in mood, behavior, and thinking. Some common types of major mental illnesses include schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).
Schizophrenia is a chronic disorder that affects a person’s ability to think, feel, and behave normally. This disorder can cause delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and a lack of motivation. People with schizophrenia may have difficulty distinguishing between what is real and what is not. Schizophrenia affects approximately 1% of the population and often develops in early adulthood.
Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder characterized by periods of mania and depression. During manic episodes, individuals may experience high levels of energy, decreased need for sleep, and impulsive behavior. Depressive episodes can involve feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and disinterest in daily activities. Bipolar disorder affects approximately 2.8% of the U.S. population and is usually diagnosed in late adolescence or early adulthood.
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
OCD is an anxiety disorder that involves recurring, unwanted thoughts and repetitive behaviors or mental acts. Obsessions can involve excessive concerns about cleanliness, harm to oneself or others, or symmetry and order. Compulsions may include repetitive hand washing, counting, or checking behaviors. OCD affects approximately 1.2% of the population and often develops in adolescence or early adulthood.
Avoidant Personality Disorder
Avoidant personality disorder is a personality disorder that involves feelings of inadequacy, hypersensitivity to criticism, and fear of rejection. Individuals with this disorder may struggle with forming close relationships, have a limited social network, and avoid situations that may cause embarrassment or criticism. This disorder affects approximately 2.4% of the population and often develops in early adulthood.
“Major mental illnesses can have a profound impact on an individual’s life, affecting their ability to work, maintain relationships, and enjoy daily activities. If you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of a major mental illness, it’s essential to seek professional help and support.”
Understanding Psychological Disorders
Psychological disorders affect millions of people worldwide and can have a significant impact on their daily lives. Some of the most common psychological disorders include personality disorders, eating disorders, and dissociative disorders.
Personality disorders affect how individuals think, feel, and behave, causing difficulties in social and professional relationships. There are various types of personality disorders, including:
|Type of Personality Disorder
|Borderline Personality Disorder
|Intense and unstable emotions, self-image, and relationships, impulsive behavior, and suicidal thoughts or actions.
|Narcissistic Personality Disorder
|Grandiosity, a constant need for admiration, and a lack of empathy for others.
|Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder
|Excessive concern with orderliness, perfectionism, and control, resulting in significant distress and interfering with daily activities.
Eating disorders involve extreme attitudes, emotions, and behaviors surrounding food, weight, and body image. Some of the most common eating disorders include:
- Anorexia Nervosa
- Bulimia Nervosa
- Binge Eating Disorder
Eating disorders can cause severe physical and mental health problems and require specialized treatment.
Dissociative disorders involve disruptions or breakdowns of memory, awareness, identity, and perception. These disorders can include:
- Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)
- Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder
Dissociative disorders can result from trauma or abuse and can cause significant distress and impairment.
Psychological disorders can have a profound impact on mental health, and seeking appropriate treatment is essential for managing symptoms and improving overall well-being.
Recognizing Mood Disorders
If you’re experiencing intense and persistent feelings that interfere with your daily life, you may be dealing with a mood disorder. These mental disorders can significantly impact your emotional well-being, making it difficult to function normally and enjoy life. Understanding different types of mood disorders is crucial for seeking appropriate help and support.
Major depressive disorder is one of the most common mood disorders, affecting approximately 16.2 million adults in the United States. Symptoms can include feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and worthlessness, as well as loss of interest in enjoyable activities, changes in appetite, and difficulty sleeping.
Bipolar disorder is another type of mood disorder characterized by extreme mood swings, ranging from depression to mania. These mood swings can affect your energy levels, judgment, and overall behavior.
Other types of mood disorders include:
- Persistent depressive disorder (also known as dysthymia), which causes chronic feelings of sadness
- Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), which is linked to the menstrual cycle and causes severe mood symptoms before menstruation
- Seasonal affective disorder (SAD), which is triggered by changes in seasons and can cause symptoms of depression during the winter months
It’s essential to seek professional help if you suspect you may have a mood disorder. Treatment options may include therapy, medication, or a combination of both.
An Overview of Anxiety Disorders and their Symptoms
Anxiety disorders are a group of mental illnesses that cause individuals to feel excessive worry or fear. These disorders can affect anyone, regardless of age, gender, or background. If you or someone close to you experiences symptoms of anxiety, seeking professional help is crucial.
Types of Anxiety Disorders
There are several types of anxiety disorders, including Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), Panic Disorder, and Social Anxiety Disorder.
GAD is characterized by persistent and excessive worry about various life events or activities. Panic Disorder involves sudden and unexpected panic attacks, which can cause physical symptoms such as chest pain, sweating, and trembling. Social Anxiety Disorder, also known as Social Phobia, causes a fear of social situations and interaction with others.
Symptoms of Anxiety Disorders
The symptoms of anxiety disorders can vary depending on the type of disorder. However, some common symptoms include excessive worrying, restlessness, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, and irritability. Physical symptoms such as muscle tension, sweating, and trembling can also occur.
If you experience any of these symptoms, it is essential to seek professional help. A mental health professional can diagnose and provide effective treatment options for anxiety disorders.
“Anxiety is a thin stream of fear trickling through the mind. If encouraged, it cuts a channel into which all other thoughts are drained.” – Arthur Somers Roche
Do not let the fear and worry of anxiety disorders control your life. Seeking help and support is the first step to overcoming these mental health challenges. Remember, millions of people around the world live fulfilling lives with anxiety disorders, and you can too.
Understanding Personality Disorders
If you or someone you know has a personality disorder, it can be challenging to understand and cope with the symptoms. Personality disorders affect how individuals think, feel, and behave, and can cause significant distress in daily life.
According to the National Institute of Mental Health, approximately 9.1% of American adults have experienced at least one personality disorder in their lifetime, and many are not even aware of it. It’s important to gain insight into these disorders to receive proper diagnosis and treatment.
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) is a personality disorder in which individuals have an inflated sense of self-importance and a constant need for admiration. They may exaggerate their achievements and personal qualities and lack empathy for others.
|Symptoms of NPD:
|– Grandiose sense of self-importance
– Preoccupation with fantasies of unlimited success, power, or beauty
– Belief of being special or unique
– Need for excessive admiration
– Sense of entitlement
– Lack of empathy
Borderline Personality Disorder
Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a personality disorder marked by intense and unstable emotions, impulsive behavior, distorted self-image, and unstable relationships. People with BPD may often feel like they are on an emotional rollercoaster and experience intense fear of abandonment.
|Symptoms of BPD:
|– Fear of abandonment
– Unstable relationships
– Impulsive, reckless behavior
– Recurrent suicidal behavior or self-harm
– Mood swings
– Identity disturbance
– Chronic feelings of emptiness
– Intense anger
Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder
Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) is a personality disorder in which individuals have a need for perfectionism, orderliness, and control. They may become overly focused on rules and organization, often to the point where it interferes with their ability to complete tasks efficiently or have meaningful relationships.
|Symptoms of OCPD:
|– Preoccupation with details, rules, lists, order, and organization
– Perfectionism that interferes with task completion
– Inflexibility and rigidity
– Excessive devotion to work
– Difficulty discarding items
– Reluctance to delegate tasks
There are other types of personality disorders, each with their own symptoms and treatment options. If you suspect that you or someone you know may have a personality disorder, it is essential to seek professional help.
Psychotherapy is often the primary treatment for personality disorders, and various medications can be used to address specific symptoms. With proper diagnosis and treatment, people with personality disorders can learn to manage their symptoms and lead fulfilling lives.
Exploring Eating Disorders
Eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, can have severe consequences on physical and mental health. These disorders are characterized by unusual eating habits and severe distress or concern about body weight or shape.
If you or someone you know suffers from an eating disorder, seeking mental illness treatment is crucial. Effective treatment usually involves a combination of psychotherapy, nutritional counseling, and medications.
Anorexia nervosa is a severe eating disorder characterized by an abnormally low body weight, an intense fear of gaining weight, and a distorted perception of body weight and shape. Individuals with anorexia often see themselves as overweight, even when they are underweight.
There are two types of anorexia nervosa:
- Restrictive type: The person restricts food intake and does not engage in binge eating or purging behavior.
- Binge-eating/purging type: The person engages in binge eating or purging behavior.
Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating and purging behavior. Individuals with bulimia often feel out of control during binge eating episodes and use purging, such as vomiting or excessive exercise, as a way to compensate for the calories consumed.
Binge Eating Disorder
Binge eating disorder is an eating disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating without purging behavior. Individuals with binge eating disorder often feel out of control during binge eating episodes and experience significant distress about their eating habits and body weight.
Treatment of Eating Disorders
Effective treatment for eating disorders usually involves a combination of psychotherapy, nutritional counseling, and medications. Treatment approaches vary depending on the type and severity of the eating disorder and may include:
- Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)
- Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT)
- Family-based therapy (FBT)
- Medical stabilization and monitoring
- Nutritional counseling
If you are struggling with an eating disorder, it’s essential to seek professional help from a mental health provider with experience in treating eating disorders. With the right support and treatment, recovery is possible.
Substance Use Disorders and Addiction
If you or someone you know is struggling with substance use disorders, it’s essential to understand their impact on mental health. Substance use disorders refer to the recurrent use of drugs or alcohol despite negative consequences.
The misuse of drugs and alcohol can lead to a range of mental disorders, including anxiety, depression, and psychosis. These conditions can have a significant impact on an individual’s quality of life, relationships, and ability to function in daily activities. Substance use disorders can also lead to physical health problems, such as liver disease, heart disease, and respiratory problems.
If left untreated, substance use disorders can lead to addiction. Addiction is a complex disease characterized by compulsive drug or alcohol use, even in the face of negative consequences. It’s essential to understand that addiction is a chronic condition and requires ongoing care and support to manage effectively.
Treatment for Substance Use Disorders
Substance use disorders and addiction are treatable conditions. Treatment may involve a combination of medication-assisted therapy, behavioral therapy, and support groups. It’s essential to seek treatment from a qualified professional who can develop a personalized care plan to meet your unique needs.
Medication-assisted therapy involves the use of medications to manage withdrawal symptoms and cravings. These medications are often used in combination with behavioral therapy to address the psychological aspects of addiction.
Behavioral therapy can include individual counseling, group therapy, and family therapy. These therapies aim to help individuals develop coping strategies and address underlying mental health issues that may contribute to substance use disorders.
Support groups, such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA), can also play a crucial role in recovery. These groups provide a safe and supportive environment for individuals to share their experiences and receive support from others who have experienced similar challenges.
If you or a loved one is struggling with substance use disorders, it’s essential to seek help and support. Remember, substance use disorders are treatable, and recovery is possible with the right care and support.
Psychotic Disorders: Understanding Schizophrenia
Psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia, are severe mental health conditions that affect an individual’s ability to think, feel, and behave appropriately. Schizophrenia is a chronic and severe mental disorder that affects how a person thinks, feels, and behaves. Although rare, it affects millions of people worldwide, making it one of the most common psychotic disorders.
Schizophrenia typically develops in the late teenage years or early adulthood and affects both men and women equally. It is a complex condition with no known single cause, but a combination of genetic, environmental, and brain chemistry factors play a role.
Symptoms of Schizophrenia
The symptoms of schizophrenia can be categorized as positive, negative, or cognitive. Positive symptoms include hallucinations, delusions, and disordered thinking. Negative symptoms include a lack of motivation, poor hygiene, and social withdrawal. Cognitive symptoms include difficulty concentrating and poor memory.
People with schizophrenia may experience a range of symptoms that can be difficult to manage. It is crucial to seek professional help as soon as possible if any of these symptoms are observed. Early diagnosis and treatment can significantly improve the outcome.
Although there is no cure for schizophrenia, several treatment options can help manage and control the symptoms. Antipsychotic medications are the most common treatment, which can reduce or eliminate the positive symptoms of psychosis. Therapies such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and family therapy can help manage the negative symptoms, improve functioning, and prevent relapse.
It’s important to note that everyone’s experience with schizophrenia is unique, and treatment will vary depending on the individual’s symptoms and needs. Seeking the help of a mental health professional is crucial in managing symptoms and improving overall quality of life.
Exploring Developmental Disorders
Developmental disorders are a group of mental disorders that can affect an individual’s cognitive, social, and communication abilities. These disorders often appear in childhood and can persist into adulthood if left untreated. Developmental disorders can be caused by genetic or environmental factors and can significantly impact an individual’s quality of life.
Types of Developmental Disorders
Some of the most common developmental disorders include:
- Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): A disorder that affects an individual’s social interaction, communication, and behavior.
- Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A disorder that affects an individual’s ability to focus and control impulsive behaviors
- Dyslexia: A disorder that affects an individual’s ability to read and write
- Intellectual Disability: A disorder that affects an individual’s intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior
Each of these disorders has distinct characteristics and requires specialized treatment.
Diagnosis and Treatment
The diagnosis of developmental disorders typically involves a comprehensive evaluation by a qualified healthcare professional. This evaluation may include medical exams, developmental assessments, and psychological evaluations. Once diagnosed, treatment for developmental disorders may include medication, therapy, and specialized education programs.
Importance of Early Intervention
Early intervention is crucial for addressing developmental disorders. Research shows that early detection and intervention can significantly improve an individual’s long-term outcomes. It is recommended that parents and caregivers seek professional help if they notice any developmental delays or behavioral concerns in their children.
Understanding Trauma and Stressor-Related Disorders
Trauma and stress can have a significant impact on mental health and lead to the development of various mental health disorders. Trauma and stressor-related disorders are a group of mental illnesses that are triggered by traumatic or stressful experiences. These disorders can cause significant distress and impairment in various aspects of an individual’s life. In this section, we will explore trauma-related disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and the symptoms associated with them.
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
PTSD is a mental health disorder that can develop after experiencing or witnessing a traumatic event. Some of the events that can trigger PTSD include sexual assault, physical violence, combat, or natural disasters. Individuals who experience or witness these events may develop intrusive thoughts, nightmares, flashbacks, and avoidance behaviors as a result.
The symptoms of PTSD can vary from person to person, but they generally fall into four categories:
- Re-experiencing symptoms: These symptoms include intrusive memories, nightmares, and flashbacks that can cause significant distress and impairment in an individual’s daily life.
- Avoidance symptoms: Individuals with PTSD may avoid people, places, or situations that are reminders of the traumatic event.
- Arousal and reactivity symptoms: These symptoms can include being easily startled, feeling on edge, having difficulty sleeping, and experiencing angry outbursts.
- Cognition and mood symptoms: Individuals with PTSD may experience negative thoughts and feelings, such as guilt, shame, and detachment from others.
It is essential to seek professional help if you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of PTSD. Treatment can help manage symptoms and improve overall functioning.
“PTSD is a mental health disorder that can develop after experiencing or witnessing a traumatic event.”
Exploring Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Neurodevelopmental disorders are a group of mental disorders that affect brain development, affecting behavior, memory, attention, learning, and social interaction. These disorders usually appear in childhood and can persist into adulthood.
The most common types of neurodevelopmental disorders include autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and intellectual disability. These conditions can have a significant impact on an individual’s daily life and require specialized treatment and support.
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
ASD is a complex developmental disorder that affects communication, social interaction, and behavioral patterns. Individuals with ASD may have difficulty with verbal and nonverbal communication, struggle with social interaction, and exhibit repetitive behavior and interests.
There is no single cause of ASD; however, it is believed to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Early diagnosis and intervention can help individuals with ASD manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
ADHD is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that affects attention, self-control, and behavior. Individuals with ADHD may have trouble paying attention, following instructions, and controlling impulsive behavior. Children with ADHD may struggle in school and have difficulty making friends.
The exact cause of ADHD is unknown, but studies suggest that it may be related to genetics, brain structure, and environmental factors. Treatment for ADHD may include medication, therapy, and lifestyle changes.
Intellectual disability is a condition characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior. Individuals with intellectual disabilities may have difficulty learning, communicating, and performing daily tasks. This condition usually appears before the age of 18 and can be caused by genetic, environmental, and metabolic factors.
Treatment for intellectual disability may include educational programs, therapy, and medication. With proper support and treatment, individuals with intellectual disabilities can lead fulfilling lives.
Neurodevelopmental disorders can have a significant impact on an individual’s life and require specialized treatment and support.
In conclusion, understanding neurodevelopmental disorders is important for promoting better mental health. If you or someone you know is struggling with symptoms of a neurodevelopmental disorder, seeking professional help is essential for proper diagnosis and treatment.
Mental Illness in Children and Adolescents
Mental health disorders affect people of all ages, including children and adolescents. In fact, it’s estimated that approximately 1 in 5 children in the United States have a mental health disorder, and half of these conditions begin before the age of 14.
Symptoms of mental illness in children and adolescents can vary depending on the specific disorder, but some common signs include changes in mood, behavior, and social interaction. These changes can impact academic performance, relationships, and overall well-being.
It’s crucial for parents, educators, and healthcare providers to recognize the signs of mental illness in children and adolescents and take appropriate steps to seek treatment. Early intervention can significantly improve outcomes and support long-term mental health.
Common Mental Illnesses in Children and Adolescents
Common mental illnesses in children and adolescents include:
- Anxiety disorders
- Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
- Eating disorders
- Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
It’s essential to note that these are not the only mental health disorders that can affect young people. Other conditions include bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and schizophrenia.
Mental Illness Treatment in Children and Adolescents
Treatment for mental illness in children and adolescents typically involves a combination of therapy and medication. Behavioral therapy, family therapy, and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) are common approaches used to address mental health disorders in young people.
Medications such as antidepressants, stimulants, and antipsychotics may also be prescribed to manage symptoms. However, it’s essential to work closely with a healthcare provider to ensure that medication is used appropriately and is monitored closely for any potential side effects.
It’s also important to consider the role of lifestyle factors, such as exercise, nutrition, and sleep, in maintaining good mental health in children and adolescents. Supporting healthy habits in these areas can have a positive impact on overall well-being.
Now that you have a better understanding of the different types of mental illnesses, you can take steps to prioritize your mental health. Remember that seeking professional help is essential and nothing to be ashamed of.
Recognizing the Signs
If you or a loved one are experiencing symptoms of a mental illness, it’s important to recognize them and seek help. Symptoms can include changes in mood, behavior, and thought patterns.
There are many resources available for those struggling with mental health disorders, including therapy, medication, and support groups. It’s crucial to find a healthcare provider that you trust and feel comfortable with.
Remember that small changes can make a big impact on your mental health. Practicing self-care, staying active, and connecting with supportive people in your life can all contribute to a healthier mind.
With knowledge comes power, and by understanding the different types of mental illnesses, you are better equipped to take control of your mental health. Don’t be afraid to seek help and prioritize your well-being. Remember, your mental health matters.
What are the different types of mental illnesses?
There are various types of mental illnesses, including depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), personality disorders, eating disorders, substance use disorders, and developmental disorders.
How do mental illnesses impact mental health?
Mental illnesses can greatly affect a person’s mental health. They can cause emotional distress, impair daily functioning, and impact relationships. It is important to seek appropriate treatment and support to improve mental well-being.
What are the symptoms of common mental illnesses?
The symptoms of common mental illnesses can vary, but they may include persistent sadness, anxiety, mood swings, hallucinations, intrusive thoughts, intense fear or worry, disordered eating patterns, substance abuse, and difficulty with attention and impulse control.
What are the treatment options for mental illnesses?
Treatment options for mental illnesses may include therapy, medication, lifestyle changes, support groups, and alternative therapies. It is important to consult with a mental health professional to determine the most appropriate treatment plan for your specific needs.
How can I support someone with a mental illness?
Supporting someone with a mental illness involves providing empathy, understanding, and unconditional support. It is important to educate yourself about their condition, listen without judgment, encourage them to seek professional help, and offer practical assistance when needed.
Can mental illnesses be prevented?
While it may not be possible to prevent all mental illnesses, there are steps you can take to promote better mental health. This includes maintaining a healthy lifestyle, managing stress, seeking social support, practicing self-care, and being aware of early warning signs of mental health issues.